Category Archives: Servieces

FOR ENHANCED LIVING

    1. 1. Craft Training
    2. 2. Computer Education
      • - Basic, MS Office, Tally, Internet etc.
      • - Simple accounts, Book keeping.
    1. 3. Business Training
          • - Dairy products
            (Baj Dairy, Village Phiddey)
  1. 4. Culture / Tourism -Hospitality Training / skills   (See Presentation of PHTPB – HUNAR SE ROZGAR)
  2. 5. Hygiene for family (In All Villages)
  3. 6. Employment – Guarantee Scheme (See Presentation of IL&FS)

CREMATION GROUND

  • - Wood
  • - Gas

VILLAGE PARK

  • - Landscape
  • - Children playgrounds

SCHOOL UPGRADATION & COMPUTER EDUCATION

  • -Provide Rooms
  • -Computers
  • -Teachers

STREET LIGHTS

  • -Solar Lights
  • -Electric Lights

STREET PAVES

  • - Concrete Streets
  • - Tile paving

 

UPGRADES DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

Distribution system of Water Supply as per CPHE

& Water Supply Sewerage Board, Punjab.

SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF SEWERAGE AND DECENTRALIZED (DEWATS) METHOD OF WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

TECHNICAL NOTE ON THE METHDOLOGY FOLLOWED BY VLIF FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN VILLAGES
Though the ancient civilization of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa was famous for its drainage and sanitation system, over the years, this aspect has been totally forgotten in our rural areas.
The emphasis is to get the muck out of the house and disposing it off. In most cases, in the streets and then into various ponds in the village.
These ponds are more often than not, the ends of various natural slopes developed over the ages.
We started with Kharaudi in 2005, with the Simplified System & Sewerage where we designed the sewerage system first and then designed a centralized treatment system. In a centralized treatment system, due to the lengthy sewerage system, it was necessary to lift water for treatment. This meant need of continuous power. Our secondary treatment system was an effective with sand and gravel filter, but which again involved electric motors.
Gradually, we inverted the problem and decided upon Decentralized Management of Wastewater. We started locating primary and secondary underground treatment systems around the location of the nearest pond or the lowest crossroad with enough space. This resulted in:
1. Shallower gravity sewers.
2. Slimmer sewers.
3. No power requirement.
4. ……
5. Very low level of maintenance.

Upto 4 or 5 such units complete the cover the whole village. Since the units are small and the overall depth is low, there is a cost saving.
A brief description of the system followed is reproduced below:
Principles of DEWATS (Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System)
In the DEWATS system both anaerobic and aerobic techniques are applied. Natural sewage treatment processes are achieved by using methods that utilise the naturally occurring physical principles combined with biological activities of microorganisms.
Microbes in the treatment facility are generated from microbial populations that occur and grow naturally in the waste water itself.
Components of the system
DEWATS applications are based on four basic treatment modules, which are combined according to specific requirements. These include two post-treatment methods in the reed bed system and in ponds.
● Pre-treatment and sedimentation in settlement tank or inseptic tank
● Secondary anaerobic treatment in baffled reactors
● Aerobic/ anaerobic treatment in reed bed system.
● Aerobic treatment in ponds (see Figure 1: Components of DEWATS system).

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Figure 1: Components of DEWATS System

Primary treatment
Pretreatment is used for the screening and sedimentation process, in which the liquid part is separated from the solid matter. A unit called a settling tank is used for this phase. It is a
sedimentation tank in which settled sludge is stabilised by anaerobic digestion. Dissolved and suspended matter leaves the tank untreated. The treatment efficiency of a septic tank is in the range of 30 per cent BOD removal. Desludging at regular intervals is absolutely necessary. A settling tank can also be incorporated into an anaerobic baffled tank as the first section of a settler device.
Secondary treatment
In the secondary treatment phase, biological and natural chemical processes are used to digest and remove most of the organic matter. A device called an anaerobic baffled tank reactor is used for this phase. Several tanks (upflow chambers) are built in a series to digest degradable substances. Baffled walls direct the water stream between the chambers from top to bottom and up again. During the process the fresh influent is mixed and inoculated for digestion with the active blanket deposit of suspended particles and microorganisms occurring naturally at the bottom of each chamber in such conditions. Because of the physical separation (multiple chambers), various microorganisms are present at different stages, allowing high treatment efficiency (see figure 2: Baffled tank reactor).

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Figure 2: Baffled Tank Reactor
The primary and secondary treatment systems are constructed below ground level. They are built together as a single and compact setup. Nearly 90 per cent of the original pollution load is removed at this stage. Since the system works in a closed environment without oxygen supply the effluent will continue to smell despite the fact that substantial treatment has taken place already. Due to this reason a planted gravel filter is included in the design for additional treatment.
Hydraulic retention time
The period for which the wastewater is retained in the septic tank or the baffled reactor is referred to as the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT). The wastewater has two components, the liquid fraction at the top layer and the sludge, which settles to the bottom. The HRT of the liquid fraction above the sludge layer should not be less than 8 hours. Ideally the HRT should range between 12 and 14 hours for the whole system. If the HRT is less than 8 hours then the quality of the effluent is affected. As a result BOD and COD removal will not be up to the desired levels. The plant capacity should therefore be planned in such a manner that the HRT ranges between 8 and 14 hours.
Advantages
- Simple and durable
- High treatment efficiency
- Little permanent space required because it is underground
- As mentioned above, shallow sewers carry the solid-less water to the tertiary treatment point/points.
- Low maintenance
- Zero use of power

Tertiary treatment
A brief description of the tertiary system is given below:
A horizontal planted gravel filter acts through the combined effect of the filter material and plants growing on the filter media. Usage of sand as the main filter materials was replaced by pebbles and granite stones. The wastewater is resupplied with oxygen while passing through the planted gravel filter. The effluent is odour free. Since baffled reactor is being used to provide secondary treatment the size of the planted filter is reduced. This leads to a cost reduction, less needed space above ground and with an additional benefit of having available larger amounts of reusable treated wastewater, due to the decrease in the high rate of evapotranspiration normally occurring in large planted filters (see Figure 3: Reed bed system with horizontal filter).

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Figure3: ( The Reed Bed System)
Advantages
● High treatment efficiency when properly constructed
● Pleasant landscaping possible
● No wastewater above ground
● Can be cheaply constructed if filtering material is available at site
● No nuisance of odour

Requirements
● High permanent space requirement
● Costly if desired quality of gravel is not available
● Technical knowledge and care required during construction
● Intensive maintenance and supervision during first one or two years

The Vetiver System
The Vetiver System (VS) is now well accepted and used worldwide for numerous applications. Amongst these, environmental protection applications are the most popular due to its effectiveness, simplicity and low cost.
Earlier research conducted to understand the role of the extraordinary physiological and morphological attributes of vetiver grass in soil and water conservation, discovered that vetiver grass also possesses some unique attributes highly suitable for treating polluted wastewater from industries as well as domestic discharges and contaminated lands from industries and mining.
• VS can reduce the volume or dispose unwanted wastewater by: seepage control, land
irrigation and wetland. Successful applications include treatment of:
- domestic and municipal sewage effluent and landfill leachate
- wastewater from intensive animal farms
- industrial wastewater recycling and disposal
- industrial and mining seepage.
• VS can improve wastewater quality by: trapping debris, sediment and particles, and absorbing pollutants such as nutrients and heavy metals, detoxification of agrochemical in wetlands. Successful applications include wastewater quality improvement of:
- water runoff from agricultural land
- water runoff from urban land

• VS can reduce the impact of pollution caused by contaminated lands from industries and
mining by land rehabilitation and phytoremediation.
- water runoff from industrial and mining land

But the most significant advance recently, is the use of vetiver grass in computer modeling to treat industrial wastewater. For this application, not only all known aspects of vetiver physiological and morphological attributes, but also its potential were carefully studied and analysed in the calibration process.

VS has been used in more than 100 countries with in tropical and subtropical climates for the prevention and treatment of polluted water and contaminated land.

The most recent and significant development on the use of vetiver for wastewater treatment is its use in a Soil Based Reed Beds, new application, which the output water quality and quantity can be adjusted to provide a desired standard. It is recommended to use Vetiver in the Root Zone Treatment component of the overall treatment steps mentioned above.
Reproduced below is the layout of an ongoing project:

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MAKING OF DETAIL PROJECT ESTIMATES

Before taking up any project a detail survey and estimate is prepared, which includes the following:-

    • Digital Site Survey
    • Contour Map of village
    • Details of street
      (Length, Width, Level and
      type of street i.e. Kacha, Bricks or Bitumen)
    • Number of houses
    • Number of Population
    • Number of Cattle
    • Details of Ponds
    • Detail Design with Drawings

BASE LINE SURVEY

SOCIO- ECONOMIC SURVEY OF VILLAGES

  • a. Village Identification
  • b. Physiographic
  • c. Population
  • d. Name of Communities
  • e. Education Background
  • f. Land Holding Pattern
  • g. Cropping Pattern
  • h. Irrigation Land
  • i. Major Agriculture Machinery & Tools
  • j. Occupational Background (Male & Female)
  • k. Economic Status (Monthly Income of Family)
  • l. Total Unemployed
  • m. Village Cottage Industry
  • n. Is There Any Large Scale Industry
  • o. Shop/Machines/Service (Type of Shop & No. of Person Employed)
  • p. Infrastructure (Education Schools)
  • q. Health Facility (Distance in Km. from village)
  • r. Drinking Water Supply
  • s. Sanitation
  • t. House details (Pucca/Kacha etc.)
  • u. Transport & Communication
  • v. Electricity Available
  • w. Financial Facility
  • x. Cooperative & Other Socities
  • y. Fuel Used
  • z. Means of Conveyance
  • aa. Telephone Facility
  • bb. No. of House’s with T.V.
  • cc. Animal Husbandary
  • dd. General Observation
  • ee. Any other remarks